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Category:2012 video games Category:3D action-adventure games Category:Bethesda Softworks games Category:Windows games Category:Video games developed in the United Kingdom Category:Video games set in Hong Kong Category:Video games set in China Category:Video games set in Russia Category:Video games set in New York City Category:Video games set in Los Angeles Category:Video games set in L.A. Category:Open world video games Category:Organized crime video games Category:Open world video games Category:Square Enix games Category:Single-player video games Category:Xbox 360 games Category:PlayStation 3 gamesAlbumin induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of albumin on rat vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and the underlying signaling pathways. VSMCs were subjected to cyclic stretch and serum depletion for 24 hours before incubation in serum-free media containing 5% albumin (Alb) for 0 to 24 hours. A time-lapse video microscopy assay was used to measure VSMC migration. Serum and stretch-induced VSMC migration, as compared with serum-free media and unstretched cells, was inhibited by 30% with 0.6% bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a control and by 70% with 1.4% Alb. Medium supplementation with 50% Alb increased VSMC migration to levels induced by serum-free media and stretch. When used in concentrations of 3% to 5% and lower, Alb induced VSMC migration. The albumin receptor at the cell surface was also shown to mediate the effects of Alb on VSMC migration. The effects of Alb on cell migration could not be inhibited by inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or RhoA-GTPase. In contrast, Western blotting indicated that Alb induced the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at Tyr-397 (FAK-Tyr-397), which was blocked by a neutralizing antibody against FAK. These results demonstrate that VSMC migration was increased when treated with 5% albumin, indicating that albumin promotes VSMC migration. Moreover, this effect of